Once children have mastered the simplicity of addition and subtraction, it is time to bring them up one more level on the learning tree of mathematics. Multiplying numbers is actually a shortened form of addition, and many children find it easy enough after they have done it a few times. They can see that if they added the same numbers time and again they would get the same results, but multiplying saves them from doing excess work. This makes it a relatively fun subject to explore.

Division is the flip side of multiplication, and students often struggle with it when they begin. Just as multiplication is a short form of adding numbers, division is a way to quickly subtract from a number with less work. There are students who will struggle with this concept for years, but most of them manage to learn it quickly enough to be able to grasp advanced concepts before they graduate.